N-Acetyl Semax: Potential Research Applications

N-Acetyl Semax

Studies suggest this modified variant of the nootropic peptide Semax, known as N-Acetyl Semax Amidate, may have better stability and potential properties that might last longer. Based on the research that has been conducted on Semax, it is anticipated that N-Acetyl Semax Amidate may have comparable nootropic and neuroprotective potential, including the following:

  • Possibly enhancing both attention and learning
  • Possibly reducing psychological exhaustion
  • Possible protection against neurotoxins and ischemia when it occurs
Research

The N-Acetyl Semax Amidate: What is it?

Semax is a synthetic peptide produced in Russia and studied as a potentially neuroprotective substance in animal studies relating to disorders such as stroke, encephalopathy, nerve atrophy, and others. N-Acetyl Semax Amidate is an acetylated and amidated variant of Semax. The amino acid structure of N-Acetyl Semax Amidate is identical to that of Semax, which is made up of the Met-Glu-His-Phe fragment from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a Pro-Gly-Pro position at the C-terminus.

Acetylation and amidation are performed to preserve the N-terminus and C-terminus of the peptide, respectively. This makes the peptide less vulnerable to enzyme destruction and hydrolysis. As a consequence of this, N-Acetyl Semax Amidate has been hypothesized to exhibit the characteristics indicated below:

  • The peptide may cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and may have a higher affinity for receptors.
  • The enzymes leucine aminopeptidase and hydrolases are examples of those that may be protected against by this compound.
  • Compared to Semax, it suggests a half-life in plasma that is thirty minutes longer.
  • It may have higher stability levels in brain tissue compared to Semax.

Let’s examine the processes contributing to developing this cutting-edge research peptide.

N-Acetyl Semax Amidate: Mechanism of Action

Research suggests that in addition to possibly having superior pharmacokinetics and the potential to exert effects for a longer period, N-Acetyl Semax Amidate is hypothesized to have a mechanism comparable to that of Semax. To provide a point of comparison, Semax has no endocrine activity; nonetheless, it is speculated to exhibit nootropic and neuroprotective effects via traversing the blood-brain barrier and interacting with various receptors or their messengers. These interactions include the following:

  • It is possible to improve brain cell survival by upregulating the production and signaling of neurotrophic elements, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), which may have neuroprotective effects. In studies, researchers speculated a forty percent rise in BDNF and a twofold increase in the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (trkB) expression that corresponds to it.
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), the downregulation of inflammatory and pro-apoptotic pathways, such as matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), c-Fos, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), has been suggested.
  • Investigations purport this peptide may aims to suppress the breakdown of enkephalins, the physiological ligands for the opioid receptors. Some data suggests that increasing enkephalin levels may aid mood and behavior linked to rewards.
  • Research conducted on laboratory animals suggests that it may exert a favorable modulatory influence on the secretion of serotonin and dopamine in brain areas such as the striatum.

N-Acetyl Semax Amidate: Properties and Research Applications

It is anticipated that N-Acetyl Semax Amidate may exhibit effects comparable to those of Semax, which is studied in Russia as a neuroprotective and nootropic substance in research. Even though further study is required, the following are some of the most theorized properties that have been speculated with Semax thus far:

  • A memory test was applied to fatigued research models, and a single concentration of Semax was received. The research results indicated that the models’ accuracy appeared to increase, with the Semax group scoring 71% accurate reactions compared to the control group’s accuracy of 41%.
  • After presenting Semax to research models who had suffered a moderate to severe stroke, researchers ascertained that the research models seemed to exhibit a considerable increase in their levels of BDNF and motor function, as well as a reduction in inflammation throughout the recovery period.
  • In a trial that included thirty research models who were suffering from alcohol delirium, it was asserted that Semax might have mitigated the neurotoxic effects of alcohol poisoning.

Findings imply that Semax may also have effects that are not associated with the central nervous system. For example, it has been theorized to regulate blood flow, microcirculation, and vascular permeability in the gastrointestinal system.

While it is important to emphasize that the studies mentioned above were carried out on Semax peptide, it is also important to note that research has not yet confirmed these properties, particularly in N-Acetyl Semax Amidate.

References

[i] Kolomin, T., Shadrina, M., Slominsky, P., Limborska, S., & Myasoedov, N. (2013). A new generation of drugs: synthetic peptides based on natural regulatory peptides. Neuroscience and Medicine, 4(04), 223-252.

[ii] Bezuglov, V. V., Gretskaia, N. M., Blazhenova, A. V., Adrianova, E. L., Akimov, A. V., Bobrov, M. I.u, Nazimov, I. V., Kisel’, M. I., Sharko, O. L., Novikov, A. V., Krasnov, N. V., Shevchenko, V. P., V’iunova, T. V., & Miasoedova, N. F. (2006). Bioorganicheskaia khimiia, 32(3), 258–267. https://doi.org/10.1134/s1068162006030046

[iii] Shevchenko, K. V., Nagaev, I. I.u, Alfeeva, L. I.u, Andreeva, L. A., Kamenskiĭ, A. A., Levitskaia, N. G., Shevchenko, V. P., Grivennikov, I. A., & Miasoedov, N. F. (2006). Bioorganicheskaia khimiia, 32(1), 64–70. https://doi.org/10.1134/s1068162006010055

[iv] Shevchenko, K. V., Nagaev, I. Y., Andreeva, L. A., Shevchenko, V. P., & Myasoedov, N. F. (2019). Prospects for Intranasal Delivery of Neuropeptides to the Brain. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 53, 89-100.

[v] Shevchenko, K. V., Nagaev, I. Y., Andreeva, L. A., Shevchenko, V. P., & Myasoedov, N. F. (2013). Stability of Semax acetyl to proteolysis in various biological media. Doklady biological sciences : proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections, 449, 110–112. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0012496613020166

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